What are §2255 Habeas Petitions?
§2255 habeas petitions are also known as a motion to vacate, set aside, or correct a sentence and is a post-conviction remedy available to defendants who were convicted in federal court and are currently in custody - either in prison or on supervised release.
Pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §2255, a defendant may seek relief on grounds that “the sentence was imposed in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States, or that the court lacked jurisdiction to impose such a sentence, or that the sentence was in excess of the maximum authorized by law, or is otherwise subject to collateral attack.”
§2255 habeas petitions are most commonly used to argue ineffective assistance of counsel. To warrant relief under §2255, the errors of which the movant complains must amount to a fundamental miscarriage of justice.
Are §2255 Habeas Petitions the Same as an Appeal?
No. A direct appeal is based on error in the district court and is filed in the United States Circuit Court of Appeals. The Court of Appeals reviews the record as it exists as of the time the notice of appeal is filed.
§2255 habeas petitions are considered to be a "collateral attack" and is used by federal prisoners after they have exhausted their case on direct appeal. A motion under §2255 is filed in the United States District Court where the conviction was entered. District courts have broad discretion in fashioning appropriate relief, including dismissal of all charges and release of the prisoner, retrial, or resentencing. §2255 petitions also offer defendants the opportunity to present the court with new evidence.
When do I file my §2255 Habeas Petition?
§2255 habeas petitions must be filed in the district court within one year from the following:
(1) the date on which the judgment of conviction becomes final;
(2) the date on which the impediment to making a motion created by governmental action in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States is removed, if the movant was prevented from making a motion by such governmental action;
(3) the date on which the right asserted was initially recognized by the Supreme Court, if that right has been newly recognized by the Supreme Court and made retroactively applicable to cases on collateral review; or
(4) the date on which the facts supporting the claim or claims presented could have been discovered through the exercise of due diligence.
What is Ineffective Assistance of Counsel?
The Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees that criminal defendants have the right to effective assistance of counsel.
To establish ineffective assistance of counsel, a defendant must show that: (1) counsel’s performance was deficient; and (2) the deficient performance prejudiced the defense. This is known as the Strickland test, named after the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S. 668, 687 (1984).
Under the first requirement of Strickland, the defendant must demonstrate that counsel’s performance was unreasonable under prevailing professional norms. Examples of deficient performance include giving erroneous advice, failing to know or learn about the relevant law and evaluate its application to the facts of the case, and failing to conduct a substantial investigation into any of his client’s plausible lines of defense.
If counsel was deficient, the defendant must then show a reasonable probability that, but for counsel’s unprofessional errors, the result of the proceeding would have been different. This requires proving that either the result of the trial would have been different or that the defendant would not have entered a guilty plea and would have instead proceeded to trial.
What Happens After I File?
Once filed, a §2255 petition goes to the judge who presided over the defendant’s trial and sentencing. The judge reviews the motion and either dismisses the motion or orders the government to file an answer. Dismissal is required where the court concludes that the claims raised in the motion, even if true, would not provide a ground for §2255 relief, or where the claims are conclusively refuted by the files and records of the case.
If the §2255 petition is not dismissed, the government is given the opportunity to file a response brief, and the defendant can file a reply to the government’s response. After briefing, an evidentiary hearing will be held unless the motion and the files and records of the case conclusively show that the defendant is entitled to no relief. An evidentiary hearing in open court is required when a defendant presents a colorable Sixth Amendment claim showing disputed facts beyond the record or when a credibility determination is necessary in order to resolve the issue.
The Magistrate Judge will then issue a detailed Report and Recommendation (“R&R”) of factual and legal findings, which the parties are able to object to. The R&R and the objections are then submitted to the District Court Judge for ruling.
Can Denied §2255 Habeas Petitions be Appealed?
If the §2255 motion is denied, the defendant may appeal to the Circuit Court of Appeals, which has jurisdiction pursuant to Federal Rule of Appellate Procedure 22(a) and 28 U.S.C. §2253, if a Certificate of Appealability (“COA”) is granted.
In order to obtain a COA a defendant must make “a substantial showing of the denial of a constitutional right.” This standard is not onerous: the Supreme Court has held that the defendant need show only that the issues are debatable among jurists of reason; that a court could resolve the issues in a different manner; or that the questions are adequate to deserve encouragement to proceed further.
Don't Wait - Get Help Now
Federal criminal defense attorney Ann Fitz has the experience and strategic abilities to successfully handle §2255 habeas petitions. Call us today at 561-932-1690 to schedule a free, confidential consultation to discuss your case. We are also available by email.